Yes – end users with Google Voice numbers (US and Canada) are able to send and receive messages to/from Twilio phone numbers within the US and Canada, as well as Twilio short codes within the same country.
Notice: At this time Google Voice does not currently support MMS messages to short code numbers.
A note about Google Hangouts, Google Voice, and short code messaging
The Google Hangouts mobile app is known to automatically prepend "+1" to short code numbers. In older versions of Hangouts, this caused end users' reply messages to short codes to fail on the device, because short codes do not have a country code. (For more information, see Formatting Short Code Numbers).
This issue now seems to be resolved, although short codes still display incorrectly with a "+1" in the Hangouts app. In our tests with version 27.0.215462205 of Hangouts for Android (released October 16, 2018), messages are delivered correctly to short codes despite the short code appearing with "+1" prepended.
According to our testing, this display issue does not occur in the Google Voice mobile app, only in Hangouts. Hangouts can optionally be used to manage SMS for Google Voice.